The Evidence


The aim at ZERO initiative is supported by a robust library of clinical studies, data and reports.


  1. Reducing Healthcare Associated Infections in Hospitals in England; Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General ; HC 560 Session 2008-2009, ISBN 978 0 10 295504 0, Publication date: 12 June 2009.
  2. Boin J et al; 2012; BMJ Qual Saf doi:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001325; Matching Michigan’: a 2-year stepped interventional programme to minimise central venous catheter-blood stream infections in intensive care units in England;
  3. accessed on  20/02/2014
  4. – accessed on 20/03/2014
  5. Barking Havering and Redbridge – quote by senior infection control nurse
  6. Leitch A et al; 2006; Journal of Hospital Infection; 63, 428-431: Reducing the potential for phlebotomy tourniquets to act as a reservoir for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus.
  7. Bukhari S et al: 44th Annual ICAAC, Washington DC page 356, K-1320, Are Silver Impregnated Central Venous Catheters Superior to Non-Impregnated Catheters?
  8. Lorente L et al; CID 2008:47; The Use of Rifampicin- Miconazole-Impregnated catheters reduces the Incidence of Femoral and Jugular Catheter Related Bacteremia.
  9. accessed on 17/04/2014
  10. William R. Jarvis, MD, ‘Choosing the Best Design for Intravenous Needleless Connectors to Prevent Bloodstream Infections’. Infection Control Today, July 28th, 2010.
  11. Mary Jo Moore RN MA, Providence Health and Services Poster. Impact of Port Protectors on Incidence of Central Line Infections.
  12. Michael A. Sweet,.Pharm.D., BCPSSHEA Annual ScientificMeeting PosterPresentation 2011 .
  13.  – accessed on 17/04/2014
  14. accessed on 17/04/2014
  15.  accessed on 17/04/2014
  16.   accessed on 17/04/2014